General Tutors

 Subject General Due By (Pacific Time) 11/30/2016 12:00 am

PART 1

Carefully read each scenario below (5scenarios total). Then identify the study design used (choose from case study/case series, cross-sectional, cohort, case-control, or experimental) and classify each study variable as quantitative, ordinal, or categorical.

Scenario 1:

A study was conducted in which healthy women (aged 35 to 55) received either a new blood pressure medication or a placebo pill for 5 months.  The results indicated that those women who took the actual medication experienced a significantly greater decrease in systolic blood pressure (average decrease = 17 mm Hg) as compared to those who took the placebo (average decrease = 2 mm Hg).

Coding for study variables:

• MED— 1 = medication; 2= placebo

• SBP— systolic blood pressure [mm Hg (millimeters of mercury)]

What type of variable is SBP?

What type of variable is MED?

What study design was used in this scenario?

Scenario 2:

A researcher is interested in assessing college students’ level of involvement with binge-drinking and perceived risk for negative consequences related to such. Data is gathered by having students complete a questionnaire.

Coding for study variables:

• FREQ frequency— total days/mo. typically binge drink

• RISK—1 = very low risk; 2 =low risk; 3 = moderate risk; 4 = high risk; 5 = very high risk

What study design was used in this scenario?

What type of variable is FREQ?

What type of variable is RISK?

Scenario 3:

The British Doctors Study of the 1950s was the first study to show a link between smoking and lung cancer. In 1951, investigators recruited 40,000 British male doctors and then monitored them for 50 years.  The results indicated that many more doctors who smoked went on to develop lung cancer than those who did not smoke.

Coding for study variables:

• CIGS—total number of cigarettes typically smoked per day

• CANCER—1 = yes; 2 = no

What study design was used in this scenario?

What type of variable is CIGS?

What type of variable is CANCER?

Scenario 4:

A study was conducted to determine if a walking plus strength training exercise program results in a significantly greater increase in aerobic capacity as compared to a walking only or a strength training only exercise program.  Participants were randomly selected and then randomly assigned to one of three groups— walking plus strength training, walking only, or strength training only.  Participants’ aerobic endurance was assessed at the beginning of the study and, again, after 6 months of exercise.

Coding for study variables:

• EXERCISE—1= walking and strength training; 2 = walking; 3 = strength training

• ENDUR—maximum oxygen uptake (liters per minute)

What type of variable is ENDUR?

What type of variable is EXERCISE?

What study design was used in this scenario?

Scenario 5:

A study was conducted to determine if pesticide exposure increases the risk of breast cancer in women. A total of 979 women aged 48 to 74 years with primary breast cancer and 952 matched controls without breast cancer were surveyed. Exposure to specific pesticides dating back 40 years was assessed.

Coding for study variables:

• EXPOSURE—1 = yes; 2 = no

• CANCER—1 = yes; 2 = no

What study design was used in this scenario?

What type of variable is EXPOSURE?

What type of variable is CANCER?

PART 2 (1–2 pages)

Use the following study:

• Summarize the purpose of the study
• Identify the stated or implied hypothesis [or expected outcome(s)]
• Describe the variables examined in the study
• Summarize the research methodology used in carrying out the study including the following:
• Study participants
• Study design utilized
• Procedures used to gather data
• Type(s) of statistical analysis/analyses used

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