# Mathematics Tutors

 Subject Mathematics Due By (Pacific Time) 12/05/2016 12:00 am

SPSS

PART-1A SPSS

on frequency distributions, you begin to understand the importance of tables and graphs which may assist public health professionals describe the shape, location, and spread of a distribution. A frequency distribution is an organized table or graphical representation of the number of individuals in each category on the scale of measurement (Manikandan, 2011). In addition, it allows the researcher to have a glance at the entire data conveniently. As you become familiar with various concepts, you will begin to ask yourself several questions such as:

Is the distribution symmetrical? Are there extreme values? Is there skewness? Given the shape of this distribution, is the mean the appropriate measure of central tendency, why or why not?

The Assignment

Complete the  Assignment Worksheet using the Excel dataset provided. Be sure that your completed worksheet contains the SPSS codebook for your data file, your responses to all questions, and all of the required SPSS output.

Step 1: Import the Microsoft Excel data into SPSS.

Step 2: Run and save the Codebook for your SPSS data file.

Step 3: Create an ungrouped frequency distribution table for each of the following:

AGE, SEX, EXERCISE, and CHNG_ENDUR.

Step 4: Run descriptive/summary statistics (mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and range) for both exercise types combined for AGE and CHNG_ENDUR.

Step 5: SPLIT the data file by exercise type (EXERCISE).

Step 6: Create a line graph that illustrates CHNG_ENDUR for each exercise type separately.

Step 7: Create pie charts for SEX for each exercise type group.

Step 8: Run descriptive/summary statistics (mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and

range) for each exercise type separately for AGE and CHNG_ENDUR.

Step 9: Review all of your SPSS output and answer each of the following questions:

Research Scenario

A study was conducted to determine if a walking plus strength training exercise program results in a significantly greater increase in aerobic capacity as compared to a walking only exercise program.  Participants are randomly selected and then randomly assigned to one of the exercise groups.  Participants’ aerobic endurance was assessed at the beginning of the study and, again, after 6-months of exercise.

Coding for study variables:

·       AGEage in years

·       SEX1 =male, 2=female

·       EXERCISE—1= walking and strength training; 2 = walking;

·       CHNG_ENDUR—change in maximal oxygen uptake (liters per minute) from pre-test to post-test

1)    How many participants were female?

2)    How many participants were aged 40–49 years?

3)    What percent of participants were 39 years old or younger?

4)    How many participants had 5 liter/min. increase in their maximal oxygen uptake?

5)    How many participants had >7 liter/min. increase in their maximal oxygen uptake?

6)    What is the mean for AGE? (Exercise 1 & 2 combined)

7)    What is the median for AGE? (Exercise 1 & 2 combined)

8)    What is the standard deviation for AGE? (Exercise 1 & 2 combined)

9)    What is the mean for CHANGE_ENDUR? (Exercise 1 & 2 combined)

10) What is the median for CHANGE_ ENDUR? (Exercise 1 & 2 combined)

11) What is the range for CHANGE_ ENDUR? (Exercise 1 & 2 combined)

12) What is the standard deviation for CHANGE_ ENDUR? (Exercise 1 & 2 combined)

13) What is the mean for CHANGE_ ENDUR? (Exercise 1 walking & strength training)

14) What is the median for CHANGE_ ENDUR? (Exercise 1 walking & strength training)

15) What is the standard deviation for CHANGE_ ENDUR? (Exercise 1 walking & strength training)

16) What is the mean for CHANGE_ ENDUR? (Exercise 2 walking only)

17) What is the median for CHANGE_ ENDUR? (Exercise 2 walking only)

18) What is the standard deviation for CHANGE_ ENDUR? (Exercise 2 walking only)

Step 11: Paste all required output below.

A.    Output—SPSS Codebook

B.    Output—all ungrouped frequency distribution tables:

C.     Output—descriptive/summary statistics for both exercise groups combined:

D.    Output—line graphs for CHNG_ENDUR for each exercise group separately:

E.     Output—pie charts for SEX for each exercise group separately:

F.     Output—descriptive/summary statistics for each exercise group separately:

PART-1B JOURNAL/ARTICLE REVIEW

Selecting statistical measures can be challenging because each situation may be different. As you review your learning resources this week, you will become familiar with several statistical measures such as measures of central location, variability, standard deviation, box plots and much more.

The Assignment (1–2 pages)

Summarize the major results of the study

Describe the information presented in tables and/or graphs

Briefly summarize the major conclusions of the study

PART-2A

Reflect on the influence of sample size with respect to variability in a probability distribution. Then, consider the relationship between frequency and probability.

The Assignment: (1–2 pages)

Explain why increasing the sample size decreased the variability in the interactive media piece.

Explain how frequency is used to inform probability and why this important. Be sure to include the relevance of p-values as it concerns probability and the relationship with frequency distributions.

PART-2B (2 Paragraph)

explanation of factors that might contribute to the relevance or irrelevance of sample size when conducting statistical analyses and why. Be specific and provide examples.

PART-3 Discussion on P-value

consider the significance of p-values in contributing to public health practice.

The assignment: (a few paragraphs)

a description of a situation where you might want lower p-values for significance and explain why.

explain how p-values that are 0.05, 0.049, and 0.051, might be different when interpreting statistical results.

Explain why p-values are significant in contributing to public health practice. Be specific and provide examples.

PART-4

You are provided with a research scenario and will answer questions related to the steps that must be followed to make the appropriate decision as to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis.

The Assignment (worksheet):

Worksheet will be provided provided. Questions are related to the steps required to interpret statistical results that either reject or fail to reject a null hypothesis.

PART-5 (2 paragraphs)

examine the factors that might influence variability in health outcomes. Also, explore social determinants of health .

The assignment (A few paragraphs)

a brief explanation of what factors might influence variability in health outcomes and how statistics can be used to identify differences between groups.

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