# General Tutors

 Subject General Due By (Pacific Time) 12/19/2016 12:00 am

PART-1

The Assignment

Complete Assignment Worksheet provided . Be sure that your completed worksheet contains the SPSS codebook for your data file, your responses to all questions, and all of the required SPSS output.

Instructions

For this assignment, perform a two-sample independent t-test and an ANOVA related to the dataset that was utilized in the week 2 SPSS application assignment. Import the data into SPSS; or, if you correctly saved the data file in week 2, you may open and use that saved file to complete this assignment. Type your answers to all questions directly into the worksheet, and paste the required output at the end of this document.

Research Scenario

A study was conducted to determine if a walking plus strength training exercise program results in a significantly greater increase in aerobic capacity as compared to a walking only exercise program.  Participants are randomly selected and then randomly assigned to one of the exercise groups.  Participants’ aerobic endurance was assessed at the beginning of the study and, again, after 6-months of exercise.

Coding for study variables:

·       AGEage in years

·       SEX1 =male, 2=female

·       EXERCISE—1= walking and strength training; 2 = walking;

·       CHNG_ENDUR—change in maximal oxygen uptake (liters per minute) from pre-test to post-test

Step 1: Import the Microsoft Excel data file provided in this week’s learning resources into SPSS (or open saved file from week 2 application assignment).

Step 2: Run and save the Codebook for your SPSS data file

Step 3: Conduct an independent samples t-test to determine if there is a difference between the exercise type 1 and 2 in terms of changes in maximal oxygen uptake. Note that the independent variable is EXERCISE, and the dependent variable is CHNG_ENDUR. For this analysis, choose a two-tailed test of significance.

Step 4: Conduct a between-subjects ANOVA to determine if there is a difference between sex (males vs. females) and CHNG_ENDUR.  Note that the independent variable is SEX, and the dependent variable is CHNG_ENDUR. For this analysis, choose a two-tailed test of significance.

Step 5: Review your SPSS output and answer each of the following questions:

 From the independent samples t-test output: 1.     What is the mean CHNG_ENDUR for group 1? ________________ 2.     What is the CHNG_ ENDUR standard deviation for group 1? ________________ 3.   What is the mean CHNG_ENDUR for group 2? ________________ 4.   What is the CHNG_ ENDUR standard deviation for group 2? ________________ 5.   What is the value of the t-statistic (equal variances assumed)? ________________ 6.   What is the probability that the obtained t-statistic was simply due to chance as opposed to actual exercise type differences [see “Sig (two-tailed)” on output]? ________________ 7.   Are the results statistically significant at alpha = 0.05 (yes or no)? ________________ 8.     Based on the results, do you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis? ________________ From the ANOVA output: 9.   What is the mean CHNG_ENDUR for males? ________________ 10.  What is the CHNG_ENDUR standard deviation for males? ________________ 11.  What is the mean CHNG_ENDUR for females? ________________ 12.  What is the CHNG_ENDUR standard deviation for females? ________________ 13.  What is the calculated F-value? ________________ 14.  What is the probability (noted as “Sig” on output) that the obtained F-value was simply due to chance as opposed to actual gender differences? ________________

Step 7: Paste the SPSS Codebook output below.

Step 8: Paste the independent samples t-test output below.

Step 9: Paste the ANOVA output below.

PART-2 (a few paragraph)

consider a true relationship between variables.

brief explanation of when an observed correlation might represent a true relationship between variables and why. Be specific and provide examples.

PART-3A

The Assignment

Complete the Application 1 Worksheet using the asbestos.sav dataset provided. Be sure that your completed worksheet contains your responses to all items, including the required SPSS output.

Note: The SPSS output generated in this assignment will also be used for this week’s Assignment 2.

Instructions

For this Assignment, review this week’s Learning Resources. Open SPSS and then use the file/open/data command to open the dataset asbestos.sav.  This is data collected on the incidence of lung cancer for those exposed to asbestos and those not exposed.

Run a chi-square for independence and odds ratio analysis as per this Week’s demonstration video. Then, provide your response to all items in this worksheet.

Note: You will use the SPSS Output generated in this Assignment  to complete PART-3B as well.

Step 1: Set up your hypothesis and determine the level of significance

1.        State the alternative/research hypothesis in written format.

2.        State the null hypothesis in written format

3.        What is your level of significance (choose α = .05 or α = .01)?

Step 2: Select the appropriate test statistic

4.        What is the appropriate test statistic?

Step 3: Set up the decision rule

5.        Based on the level of significance you set in step 1 and test statistic in step 4, what is your decision rule?

Note: Because there are 2 rows and 2 columns, the total degrees of freedom is 1.

Step 4: Compute the test statistic

·       Open SPSS and then use the file/open/data command to open the dataset asbestos.sav.

·       Select: Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs

·       Move asbestos to the Row(s) box, and lungca to the Column(s) box. Click on Statistics and make sure Chi-Square and RISK are checked. Click on Cells, and check Observed and Expected (frequencies). Click Continue; click OK.

6.        What is the χ2 value computed by your SPSS analysis?

7.        Paste your SPSS output here:

Step 5: Conclusion

# 8.        Do you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?

9.        Is there an association between asbestos exposure and lung cancer?

PART-3B

This assignment is considered a continuation of this PART-3A. You will refer back to and use the SPSS output generated in this week’s Assignment 1 for this assignment as well.

The Assignment

Complete the Week 10 Application 1 Worksheet using the asbestos.sav dataset provided.

Be sure that your completed worksheet contains your responses to all items, including the required SPSS output.

Instructions

You will refer back to and use the SPSS output generated in this week’s PART-3A for this assignment as well. This output is based on the asbestos.sav dataset that related to the incidence of lung cancer for those exposed to asbestos and those not exposed. Be sure to refer back to that output and then provide your response to all items in this worksheet.

Note: Scores are to be entered by instructor

## 1.     From the SPSS output generated in this week’s Assignment 1, copy only your odds ratio analysis (“Risk Estimate”) portion of the output and paste, below:

2.     The p-value associated with a chi-square test only suggests whether or not the results are statistically significant. Why is it important to also look at the odds ratio?

3.     What does the odds ratio value in the SPSS output tell you, specifically, about lung cancer and exposure to asbestos?

4.     Based on your answer above, would you say there is a strong association between asbestos exposure and lung cancer?

## 5.     From the SPSS output generated in this week’s Assignment 1, copy only your “asbestos * lung cancer Crosstabulation” portion of the output and paste, below:

6.     Using the formula provided in this week’s Learning Resources, and the data in the cross-tabulation output, calculate the odds ratio and show your work in your answer, below.

PART-4

brief explanation of your Final Project, including variables of interest and types of statistical tests conducted in your analysis. Explain your analysis of the results and the significance of these results for public health practice. Be specific and provide examples.

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