Q1. Which of the following best characterizes the correlation between income and subjective feelings of happiness? a. negligible b. negative, but weak c. positive, but weak d. positive and strong Q2. Many people share a sense of economic decline today, even though a. productivity is on the rise. b. cost of living remains stable. c. our society is more affluent than ever. d. the upper class is probably smaller than previously. Q3. Technology has enabled humankind to exercise unprecedented control over many aspects of the physical world but at the same time has also created serious a. environmental problems. b. microscopic defects. c. medical costs. d. under-consumption. Q4. A researcher wants to determine whether diet causes children to learn better in school. In this study, the independent variable is a. the children. b. the type of diet. c. the age of the children. d. a measure of learning. Q5. An important insight that can be drawn from the research on happiness is that a. money can buy happiness. b. attractive people are generally happy people. c. objective realities are not as important as subjective feelings. d. collectivist cultures are happier than individualistic cultures. Q6. Which of the following is consistent with the information presented in the textbook regarding class attendance? a. Among successful students (grade average B or better) class attendance did not seem to matter. b. Among unsuccessful students (grade average C- or below) class attendance did not seem to matter. c. Even when an instructor delivers hard-to-follow lectures, it is important for all students to go to class. d. It is only important for all students to go to class when instructors provide well-organized lectures. Q7. Research indicates that people who have heartfelt religious convictions a. are happier than people who are non-religious. b. are less happy than people who are non-religious. c. are more likely to be happy than people who are non-religious. d. are less happy than people who are non-religious because they have less community support. Q8. Which of the following is the correct order for the five steps in the SQ3R method? a. survey, question, recite, read, review b. question, survey, read, recite, review c. survey, question, review, read, recite d. survey, question, read, recite, review Q9. Psychodynamic theories of personality tend to focus on a. a set of basic personality traits. b. unconscious mental processes. c. the unique qualities of human beings. d. reward and punishment as primary forces in personality. Q10. Compared to mental ability tests, personality tests tend to have ____ reliability. a. higher b. lower c. equal d. more variable Q11. A projective test is generally used to measure a. attitudes. b. intelligence. c. academic achievement. d. personality traits. Q12. Two months ago, your best friend did not win a major scholarship that she had been counting on to help pay for graduate school. Now she is always fighting with you, her boyfriend, and her roommates. She is most likely using the defense mechanism called a. regression. b. displacement. c. projection. d. identification. Q13. ____ refers to the process of learning as one experiences the consequences of voluntary actions. a. Operant conditioning b. Classical conditioning c. Social learning d. Extinction Q14. Which of the following individuals based his theory on the importance of the self-concept? a. Abraham Maslow b. Carl Rogers c. Sigmund Freud d. Hans Eysenck Q15. Which of the following ideas lies at the core of the concept of personality? a. being true to oneself b. traits shared with others c. consistency across situations d. being able to adjust to different situations Q16. Getting hungry upon hearing the advertising tune for a fast-food chain is an example of ____ conditioning. a. operant b. social c. classical d. emotional Q17. After barely squeezing through Anatomy with a passing grade, you sleep 16 hours a day for the first 10 days of summer break and refuse to see any of your friends. You are in the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome. a. alarm b. exhaustion c. resistance d. extinction Q18. Research following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States found that emotions of anger, sad, glad, hopeful, and content were statistically significant in relation to a. defense mechanisms. b. resilience. c. the parasympathetic system. d. feelings of sympathy. Q19. The general tendency to expect good outcomes is called a. hardiness. b. optimism. c. social support. d. sensation seeking. Q20. ____ involves active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands of stress. a. Coping b. Adjustment c. Stress tolerance d. General adaptation Q21. Physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion due to work-related stress is called a. burnout. b. reaction formation disorder. c. the general adaptation syndrome. d. posttraumatic stress disorder. Q22. The 'fight-or-flight' response was first described by a. Martin Seligman b. Ray Rosenman c. Walter Cannon d. Hans Selye Q23. Whenever others expect you to conform to their expectations or perform in certain ways, you tend to experience a. anger. b. conflict. c. frustration. d. pressure. Q24. An alternative to the fight-or-flight response that may be present for females is the a. tend-and-befriend response. b. lock-and-load response. c. freeze-and-free-up response. d. cat-and-mouse response. Q25. One challenge faced by members of ethnic minorities in dealing with everyday discrimination is that manifestations of such discrimination are often a. imaginary. b. ambiguous. c. minor. d. consistent.