|Due By (Pacific Time)||12/30/2016 12:00 am|
|Q1. Compared to depressed people, 'normal' people tend to ____ the degree to which they control chance events.
c. less accurately estimate
d. more accurately estimate
Q2. Diversion of anger toward a substitute target was noted by Sigmund Freud, who called it
d. reaction formation.
Q3. Coping strategies in different situations mean that ____ is more desirable than ____.
a. flexibility; consistency
b. consistency; flexibility
c. stability; flexibility
d. stability; consistency
Q4. Albert Ellis believes that problematic emotional reactions to stress are caused by
a. unpleasant events.
b. catastrophic thinking.
c. excessively logical thinking.
d. the over-reliance on defense mechanisms.
Q5. The first step in a self-modification program is
a. design your program.
b. gather baseline data.
c. specify your target behavior.
d. Any of these can be used as the first step.
Q6. Defense mechanisms can operate at
a. the unconscious level only.
b. the conscious level only.
c. the preconscious level only.
d. both the conscious and unconscious levels.
Q7. Which of the following statements about defense mechanisms is not true?
a. Defensive coping is an avoidance strategy.
b. They typically operate at the unconscious level.
c. They are generally considered poor ways of coping.
d. Their use is considered an indication of psychological maladjustment.
Q8. Experimental research indicates that aggressive behavior
a. is basically uncontrollable.
b. does not reliably lead to catharsis.
c. is often adaptive in interpersonal relationships.
d. is an instinctual approach for dealing with frustration.
Q9. People engage in counterproductive strategies because
a. they are intent on self-defeat.
b. they believe they will eventually be successful.
c. they are masochistic.
d. they are experiencing only minimal emotional arousal.
Q10. Research suggests that a preference for an 'ought self-guide' is strongly associated with a positive temperament and parental warm, while a preference for the 'ideal self-guide' is strongly associated with a negative temperament and parental rejection.
Q11. The notion that people prefer to receive feedback from others that is consistent with their own self-views is called
c. self-serving bias.
d. downward social comparison.
Q12. A mismatching of self-perceptions is termed
a. ideal self.
Q13. If you use self-control resources by resisting temptation in a given situation
a. you are more likely to resist temptation in the future.
b. you may have a hard time resisting the next temptation.
c. you are more likely to be able to persist at a new and difficult task.
d. you may have difficulty showing empathy for those who exhibit poor self-control.
Q14. People assess personal worth through
a. authentic self.
b. public self.
Q15. Which of the following theorists was the first to suggest that people tend to attribute behavior to either internal or external causes?
a. Fritz Heider
b. Albert Bandura
c. Erik Erikson
d. Sigmund Freud
Q16. Which of the following researchers proposed social comparison theory?
a. Albert Bandura
b. E. Tory Higgins
c. Leon Festinger
d. Martin Seligman
Q17. Defensive attributions help people maintain a belief in a(n)
a. 'just world'.
b. 'imperfect society'.
c. distorted sense of cultural identity.
d. synchronized society.
Q18. Threats to personal and social identity motivate individuals to restore
a. social order.
c. 'old-fashioned' discrimination.
Q19. Attractive people are most likely to have an advantage in which of the following types of situations?
Q20. Research supports the theory that a shift from ____ to ____ can reduce stereotyping and prejudice.
a. automatic processing; controlled processing
b. 'old-fashioned' discrimination; symbolic racism
c. cooperative interdependence; intergroup competition
d. defensive attribution; diffusion of responsibility
Q21. If Harold intends to use the reciprocity norm to influence Ramon, a potential customer, to buy his product, Harold might
a. offer Ramon a great bargain, revealing hidden costs later.
b. take Ramon to dinner at a nice restaurant.
c. try to convince Ramon of the scarcity of his product.
d. try to stimulate a reactance response in Ramon.
Q22. Research indicates that Koreans are less prone to the fundamental attribution error than Americans.
Q23. Explaining the behavior of outgroup members on the basis of the characteristic that sets them apart is known as the
a. fundamental attribution error.
b. self-fulfilling prophecy.
c. outgroup homogeneity effect.
d. outgroup heterogeneity effect.
Q24. Internal attributions ascribe causes of behavior to
a. situational factors.
b. interpersonal factors.
c. environmental factors.
d. personal dispositions.
Q25. Researchers think that the reason the foot-in-the-door technique is effective is that people have a tendency to
a. please others.
b. observe their own behavior.
c. use the reciprocity norm.
d. engage in fundamental attribution.
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